Arduino ISP programmer
This is standard Arduino programmer and it require much less experience than FTDI bitbang programmer. It is made of any Arduino
board (including Nano) and allows you to program another Arduino board or Arduino-compatible Atmel MCU on breadboard. Breadboard
circuit is made of 1k resistor and (if needed) 2 pcs 22 pF capacitors and 16 MHz crystal.
Arduino programming circuit
Breadboard programming circuit
First (master) Arduino is flashed with ArduinoISP sketch from examples. If you are using Arduino IDE 1.0 or older, find
heertbeat() function of sketch and change delay(40) to delay(20) inside it. Then disconnect Arduino from USB, connect slave
controller and connect USB.
Board type should match slave, i. e. if ArduinoISP is Atmega8 and you are flashing Atmega328, select 328. To flash, select
File->Upload using programmer or press Ctrl+Shift+U. To burn bootloader, select Tools->Burn bootloader.